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Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is one of the most toxic and well-known biological compounds in the world which resulting from Clostridium botulinum (which causes botulism). They are anaerobic, gram-positive, microbes that form widespread spores in nature (soil, water, plant, even invertebrate gut). Botulinum has 7 known and distinct serotypes (A, B, C1, D, E, F, G). Botulinum inhibits neurotransmission and releasing of acetylcholine in neuromuscular contact points to prevent skeletal muscle contraction, causing paralysis in the body.
The knowledge of botulinum doses and an understanding of functional anatomy of the muscles is essential for the safe and effective use of botulinum in clinical treatments.


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