The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere:
- Angioedema [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hepatic failure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Renal impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Enalapril has been evaluated for safety in more than 10,000 patients, including over 1,000 patients treated for one year or more.
In clinical trials, discontinuation of therapy for clinical adverse experiences was required in 3.3% of patients with hypertension and in 5.7% of patients with heart failure.
Adverse reactions (where rate on enalapril exceeds the rate on placebo by at least 0.2%) occurring in greater than 1% of patients with hypertension treated with enalapril in controlled clinical trials are shown below. In patients treated with enalapril, the maximum duration of therapy was three years; in placebo treated patients, the maximum duration of therapy was 12 weeks.
Adverse Reactions Occurring in Greater Than 1% of Patients With Hypertension
|Enalapril Maleate Tablets
(n = 2314)
(n = 230)
|Body As A Whole|
|Fatigue||3.0 ( < 0.1)||2.6|
|Orthostatic Effects||1.2 ( < 0.1)||0|
Other Adverse Reactions from Clinical Studies or Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been reported in clinical studies or postmarketing experience with enalapril. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Other serious clinical adverse experiences occurring since the drug was marketed or adverse experiences occurring in 0.5 to 1.0% of patients with hypertension or heart failure in clinical trials are listed below and, within each category, are in order of decreasing severity.
Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest; myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident, possibly secondary to excessive hypotension in high risk patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]; pulmonary embolism and infarction; pulmonary edema; rhythm disturbances, including atrial tachycardia and bradycardia; atrial fibrillation; palpitation; Raynaud's phenomenon.
Digestive: Ileus, pancreatitis, melena, anorexia, dyspepsia, constipation, glossitis, stomatitis, dry mouth.
Hematologic: Rare cases of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow depression.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle cramps.
Nervous/Psychiatric: Depression, confusion, ataxia, somnolence, insomnia, nervousness, peripheral neuropathy (e.g., paresthesia, dysesthesia), dream abnormality.
Respiratory: Bronchospasm, rhinorrhea, sore throat and hoarseness, asthma, upper respiratory infection, pulmonary infiltrates, eosinophilic pneumonitis.
Skin: Exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pemphigus, herpes zoster, erythema multiforme, urticaria, pruritus, alopecia, flushing, diaphoresis, photosensitivity.
Special Senses: Blurred vision, taste alteration, anosmia, tinnitus, conjunctivitis, dry eyes, tearing.
Urogenital: Flank pain, gynecomastia, impotence.
Miscellaneous: A symptom complex has been reported which may include some or all of the following: a positive ANA, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia/myositis, fever, serositis, vasculitis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, photosensitivity, dermatologic manifestations.