Minor reactions such as flushing, chills, muscle cramps, back pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, arthralgia, and wheezing were the most frequent adverse reactions observed during the clinical trials of Cytogam® (cytomegalovirus immune globulin intravenous human) , Cytomegalovirus Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human). The incidence of these reactions during the clinical trials was less than 6.0% of all infusions and such reactions were most often related to infusion rates. A decrease in blood pressure was observed in 1 of 1039 infusions in clinical trials of Cytogam® (cytomegalovirus immune globulin intravenous human) . If a patient develops a minor side effect, slow the rate immediately or temporarily interrupt the infusion.
Increases in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been observed as soon as one to two days following IGIV infusion. Progression to oliguria or anuria requiring dialysis has been observed. Types of severe renal adverse events that have been seen following IGIV therapy include acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis, proximal tubular nephropathy and osmotic nephrosis (18-25).
Severe reactions such as angioneurotic edema and anaphylactic shock, although not observed during clinical trials, are a possibility. Clinical anaphylaxis may occur even when the patient is not known to be sensitized to immune globulin products. A reaction may be related to the rate of infusion; therefore, carefully adhere to the infusion rates as outlined under "DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION." If anaphylaxis or drop in blood pressure occurs, discontinue infusion and use antidote such as diphenhydramine and adrenalin.
The following adverse reactions have been identified and reported during the post-approval use of IGIV products (38):
Respiratory. Apnea, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Transfusion Associated Lung Injury (TRALI), cyanosis, hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, dyspnea, bronchospasm
Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest, thromboembolism, vascular collapse, hypotension
Neurological: Coma, loss of consciousness, seizures, tremor
Integumentary: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, epidermolysis, erythema multiforme, bullous dermatitis
Hematologic: Pancytopenia, leukopenia, hemolysis, positive direct antiglobulin (Coombs) test
General/Body as a Whole: Pyrexia, Rigors
Musculoskeletal: Back pain
Gastrointestinal:Hepatic dysfunction, abdominal pain
Because postmarketing reporting of these reactions is voluntary and the at-risk populations are of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate the frequency of the reaction or establish a causal relationship to exposure to the product. Such is also the case with literature reports authored independently.