Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.
Two hundred forty-four patients participated in two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of Cardene I.V. Adverse experiences were generally not serious and most were expected consequences of vasodilation. Adverse experiences occasionally required dosage adjustment. Therapy was discontinued in approximately 12% of patients, mainly due to hypotension, headache, and tachycardia.
The table below shows percentage of patients with adverse events where the rate is > 3% more common on Cardene I.V. than placebo.
|Adverse Event||Cardene I.V.
|Body as a Whole|
|Headache, n (%)||21 (15)||2 (2)|
|Hypotension, n (%)||8 (6)||1 (1)|
|Tachycardia, n (%)||5 (4)||0|
|Nausea/vomiting, n (%)||7 (5)||1 (1)|
Other adverse events have been reported in clinical trials or in the literature in association with the use of intravenously administered nicardipine:
Body as a Whole: fever, neck pain
Cardiovascular: angina pectoris, atrioventricular block, ST segment depression, inverted T wave, deep-vein thrombophlebitis
Hemic and Lymphatic: thrombocytopenia
Metabolic and Nutritional: hypophosphatemia, peripheral edema
Nervous: confusion, hypertonia
Respiratory: respiratory disorder
Special Senses: conjunctivitis, ear disorder, tinnitus
Urogenital: urinary frequency
Sinus node dysfunction and myocardial infarction, which may be due to disease progression, have been seen in patients on chronic therapy with orally administered nicardipine.
Post-Marketing And Other Clincal Experience
Because adverse reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate reliably their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The following adverse reaction has been identified during post-approval use of Cardene I.V.: decreased oxygen saturation (possible pulmonary shunting).