Adverse reaction information on ATROVENT Nasal Spray 0.03% in patients with perennial rhinitis was derived from four multicenter, vehicle-controlled clinical trials involving 703 patients (356 patients on ATROVENT and 347 patients on vehicle), and a one-year, open-label, follow-up trial. In three of the trials, patients received ATROVENT Nasal Spray (ipratropium bromide nasal spray) 0.03% three times daily, for eight weeks. In the other trial, ATROVENT Nasal Spray (ipratropium bromide nasal spray) 0.03% was given to patients two times daily for four weeks. Of the 285 patients who entered the open-label, follow-up trial, 232 were treated for 3 months, 200 for 6 months, and 159 up to one year. The majority ( > 86%) of patients treated for one year were maintained on 42 mcg per nostril, two or three times daily, of ATROVENT Nasal Spray (ipratropium bromide nasal spray) 0.03%.
Table 1 shows adverse events, and the frequency that these adverse events led to the discontinuation of treatment, reported for patients who received ATROVENT Nasal Spray 0.03% at the recommended dose of 42 mcg per nostril, or vehicle two or three times daily for four or eight weeks. Only adverse events reported with an incidence of at least 2.0% in the ATROVENT group and higher in the ATROVENT group than in the vehicle group are shown.
Table 1 - % of Patients Reporting Events +
Nasal Spray 0.03%
|Incidence %||Discontinued %||Incidence %||Discontinued %|
|Upper respiratory tract infection||9.8||1.4||7.2||1.4|
|Other nasal symptoms3||3.1||1.1||1.7||0.3|
| + This table includes adverse events which occurred at an incidence rate of at least 2.0% in the ATROVENT group and more frequently in the ATROVENT group than in the vehicle group.
1 Epistaxis reported by 7.0% of ATROVENT patients and 2.3% of vehicle patients, blood-tinged mucus by 2.0% of ATROVENT patients and 2.3% of vehicle patients.
2Nasal irritation includes reports of nasal itching, nasal burning, nasal irritation, and ulcerative rhinitis.
3 Other nasal symptoms include reports of nasal congestion, increased rhinorrhea, increased rhinitis, posterior nasal drip, sneezing, nasal polyps, and nasal edema.
*All events are listed by their WHO term; rhinitis has been presented by descriptive terms for clarification.
ATROVENT Nasal Spray (ipratropium bromide nasal spray) 0.03% was well tolerated by most patients. The most frequently reported nasal adverse events were transient episodes of nasal dryness or epistaxis. These adverse events were mild or moderate in nature, none was considered serious, none resulted in hospitalization and most resolved spontaneously or following a dose reduction. Treatment for nasal dryness and epistaxis was required infrequently (2% or less) and consisted of local application of pressure or a moisturizing agent (e.g., petroleum jelly or saline nasal spray). Patient discontinuation for epistaxis or nasal dryness was infrequent in both the controlled (0.3% or less) and one-year, open-label (2% or less) trials. There was no evidence of nasal rebound (i.e., a clinically significant increase in rhinorrhea, posterior nasal drip, sneezing or nasal congestion severity compared to baseline) upon discontinuation of double-blind therapy in these trials.
Adverse events reported by less than 2% of the patients receiving ATROVENT Nasal Spray 0.03% during the controlled clinical trials or during the open-label follow-up trial, which are potentially related to ATROVENT's local effects or systemic anticholinergic effects include: dry mouth/throat, dizziness, ocular irritation, blurred vision, conjunctivitis, hoarseness, cough, and taste perversion.
There were infrequent reports of skin rash in both the controlled and uncontrolled clinical studies.
Allergic-type reactions such as skin rash, angioedema of the throat, tongue, lips and face, generalized urticaria (including giant urticaria), laryngospasm, and anaphylactic reactions have been reported with Atrovent® (ipratropium bromide) Nasal Spray 0.03% and for other ipratropium bromide-containing products, with positive rechallenge in some cases.
Additional side effects identified from the published literature and/or post-marketing surveillance on the use of ipratropium bromide-containing products (singly or in combination with albuterol), include: urinary retention, prostatic disorders, mydriasis, cases of precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma, acute eye pain, wheezing, dryness of the oropharynx, sinusitis, tachycardia, palpitations, pain, edema, gastrointestinal distress (diarrhea, nausea, vomiting), bowel obstruction, and constipation.
After oral inhalation of ipratropium bromide in patients suffering from COPD/Asthma supraventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation have been reported.