The most serious adverse reactions seen in Asacol HD clinical trials or with other products that contain or are metabolized to mesalamine were:
- Renal impairment, including renal failure (rare) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Acute exacerbation of colitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypersensitivity reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) has been evaluated in 896 patients with ulcerative colitis in controlled studies. Three six-week, active-controlled studies were conducted comparing Asacol HD 4.8 g/day with Asacol (mesalamine) 2.4 g/day as control in patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis. In these studies, 727 patients were dosed with the Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) tablet and 732 patients were dosed with the Asacol 400 mg tablet. (One Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) 800 mg tablet has not been shown to be bioequivalent to two Asacol 400 mg tablets [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].)
The most common reactions reported in the Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) group were headache (4.7%), nausea (2.8%), nasopharyngitis (2.5%), abdominal pain (2.3%), exacerbation of ulcerative colitis (2.3%), diarrhea (1.7%), and dyspepsia (1.7%); Table 1 enumerates adverse drug reactions that occurred in the three studies. The most common reactions in the primary efficacy population of patients with moderately active ulcerative colitis (602 patients dosed with Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) and 618 patients dosed with the Asacol 400 mg tablet) were the same as all treated patients. The majority of adverse reactions with Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) in the double-blind, active-controlled trials were mild or moderate in severity and were reversible.
Discontinuations due to adverse reactions occurred in 3.9% of patients in the Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) group and in 4.2% of patients in the Asacol 400 mg tablet comparator group. The most common cause for discontinuation was gastrointestinal symptoms associated with ulcerative colitis.
Severe adverse reactions occurred in 7.6% of patients in the Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) group and in 7.6% of patients in the Asacol 400 mg tablet comparator group. Most of these reactions were gastrointestinal symptoms related to ulcerative colitis. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 0.8% of patients in the Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) group and in 1.8% of patients in the Asacol 400 mg tablet comparator group. The majority involved the gastrointestinal system.
Table 1 : Adverse Reactions Occurring in 1% or More of All Treated Patients (Three studies combined; Intent-to-treat population)
|MedDRA Preferred Term||Asacol*
(400 mg Tablet)
|Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) *
(800 mg Tablet)
|Headache||4.9 %||4.7 %|
|Nausea||2.9 %||2.8 %|
|Nasopharyngitis||1.4 %||2.5 %|
|Abdominal pain||2.3 %||2.3 %|
|Ulcerative Colitis||2.7 %||2.3 %|
|Diarrhea||1.9 %||1.7 %|
|Dyspepsia||0.8 %||1.7 %|
|Vomiting||1.6 %||1.4 %|
|Flatulence||0.7 %||1.2 %|
|Influenza||1.2 %||1.0 %|
|Pyrexia||1.2 %||0.7 %|
|Cough||1.4 %||0.3 %|
|N = number of patients within specified treatment group
% =percentage of patients in category and treatment group
*One Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) 800 mg tablet has not been shown to be bioequivalent to two Asacol 400 mg tablets [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Adverse Reaction Information from Other Sources
In addition to the adverse reactions reported above in clinical trials involving the Asacol HD (mesalamine delayed-release tablets, oral) tablet, the adverse events listed below have been reported in controlled clinical trials, open label studies, literature reports, or foreign and domestic marketing experience with Asacol 400 mg tablets or other products that contain or are metabolized to mesalamine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body as a Whole: Facial edema, edema, peripheral edema, asthenia, chills, infection, malaise, pain, neck pain, chest pain, back pain, abdominal enlargement, lupus-like syndrome, drug fever (rare).
Cardiovascular: Pericarditis (rare), pericardial effusion, myocarditis (rare), vasodilation, migraine.
Gastrointestinal: Dry mouth, stomatitis, oral ulcers, anorexia, increased appetite, eructation, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, perforated peptic ulcer (rare), constipation, hemorrhoids, rectal hemorrhage, bloody diarrhea, tenesmus, stool abnormality.
Hepatic: There have been rare reports of hepatotoxicity, including jaundice, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis, and possible hepatocellular damage including liver necrosis and liver failure. Some of these cases were fatal. Asymptomatic elevations of liver enzymes which usually resolve during continued use or with discontinuation of the drug have also been reported. One case of Kawasaki-like syndrome, that included changes in liver enzymes, was also reported.
Hematologic: Agranulocytosis (rare), aplastic anemia (rare), anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy.
Musculoskeletal: Gout, rheumatoid arthritis, arthritis, arthralgia, joint disorder, myalgia, hypertonia.
Neurological/Psychiatric: Anxiety, depression, somnolence, insomnia, nervousness, confusion, emotional lability, dizziness, vertigo, tremor, paresthesia, hyperesthesia, peripheral neuropathy (rare), Guillain-Barré syndrome (rare), and transverse myelitis (rare).
Respiratory/Pulmonary: Sinusitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis, asthma exacerbation, pleuritis, bronchitis, eosinophilic pneumonia, interstitial pneumonitis.
Skin: Alopecia, psoriasis (rare), pyoderma gangrenosum (rare), erythema nodosum, acne, dry skin, sweating, pruritus, urticaria, rash.
Special Senses: Ear pain, tinnitus, ear congestion, ear disorder, conjunctivitis, eye pain, blurred vision, vision abnormality, taste perversion.
Renal/Urogenital: Renal failure (rare), interstitial nephritis, minimal change nephropathy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS], dysuria, urinary frequency and urgency, hematuria, epididymitis, decreased libido, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia.
Elevated AST (SGOT) or ALT (SGPT), elevated alkaline phosphatase, elevated GGT, elevated LDH, elevated bilirubin, elevated serum creatinine and BUN.