The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Hypersensitivity (serious skin reactions) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]
- Bronchospasm [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypotension and syncope [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Seizure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Cerebrovascular Reactions, Including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Anticholinergic Reactions Including Exacerbation of Glaucoma and Urinary Retention [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The following findings are based on pooled data from three short-term (24-hour), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (Studies 1, 2, and 3) of ADASUVE 10 mg in the treatment of patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. In the 3 trials, 259 patients received ADASUVE 10 mg, and 263 received placebo [see Clinical Studies].
Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions
In the 3 trials in acute agitation, the most common adverse reactions were dysgeusia, sedation, and throat irritation. These reactions occurred at a rate of at least 2% of the ADASUVE group and at a rate greater than in the placebo group. (Refer to Table 1).
Table 1: Adverse Reactions in 3 Pooled Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials (Studies 1, 2, and 3) in Patients with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder
(n = 263)
(n = 259)
Airway Adverse Reactions in the 3 Trials in Acute Agitation
Agitated patients with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder: In the 3 short-term (24-hour), placebo-controlled trials in patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (Studies 1, 2, and 3), bronchospasm (which includes reports of wheezing, shortness of breath and cough) occurred more frequently in the ADASUVE group, compared to the placebo group: 0% (0/263) in the placebo group and 0.8% (2/259) in the ADASUVE 10 mg group. One patient with schizophrenia, without a history of pulmonary disease, had significant bronchospasm requiring rescue treatment with a bronchodilator and oxygen.
Bronchospasm and Airway Adverse Reactions in Pulmonary Safety Trials
Clinical pulmonary safety trials demonstrated that ADASUVE can cause bronchospasm as measured by FEV1, and as indicated by respiratory signs and symptoms in the trials. In addition, the trials demonstrated that patients with asthma or other pulmonary diseases, such as COPD are at increased risk of bronchospasm. The effect of ADASUVE on pulmonary function was evaluated in 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical pulmonary safety trials in healthy volunteers, patients with asthma, and patients with COPD. Pulmonary function was assessed by serial FEV1 tests, and respiratory signs and symptoms were assessed. In the asthma and COPD trials, patients with respiratory symptoms or FEV1 decrease of ≥ 20% were administered rescue treatment with albuterol (metered dose inhaler or nebulizer) as required. These patients were not eligible for a second dose; however, they had continued FEV1 monitoring in the trial.
Healthy Volunteers: In the healthy volunteer crossover trial, 30 subjects received 2 doses of either ADASUVE or placebo 8 hours apart, and 2 doses of the alternate treatment at least 4 days later. The results for maximum decrease in FEV1 are presented in Table 2. No subjects in this trial developed airway related adverse reactions (cough, wheezing, chest tightness, or dyspnea).
Asthma Patients: In the asthma trial, 52 patients with mild-moderate persistent asthma (with FEV1 ≥ 60% of predicted) were randomized to treatment with 2 doses of ADASUVE 10 mg or placebo. The second dose was to be administered 10 hours after the first dose. Approximately 67% of these patients had a baseline FEV1 ≥ 80% of predicted. The remaining patients had an FEV1 60-80% of predicted. Nine patients (17%) were former smokers. As shown in Table 2 and Figure 7, there was a marked decrease in FEV1 immediately following the first dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 303 mL and 9.1%, respectively). Furthermore, the effect on FEV1 was greater following the second dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 537 mL and 14.7 %, respectively). Respiratory-related adverse reactions (bronchospasm, chest discomfort, cough, dyspnea, throat tightness, and wheezing) occurred in 54% of ADASUVE-treated patients and 12% of placebo-treated patients. There were no serious adverse events. Nine of 26 (35%) patients in the ADASUVE group, compared to one of 26 (4%) in the placebo group, did not receive a second dose of study medication, because they had a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 or they developed respiratory symptoms after the first dose. Rescue medication (albuterol via metered dose inhaler or nebulizer) was administered to 54% of patients in the ADASUVE group [7 patients (27%) after the first dose and 7 of the remaining 17 patients (41%) after the second dose] and 12% in the placebo group (1 patient after the first dose and 2 patients after the second dose).
COPD Patients: In the COPD trial, 53 patients with mild to severe COPD (with FEV1 ≥ 40% of predicted) were randomized to treatment with 2 doses of ADASUVE 10 mg or placebo. The second dose was to be administered 10 hours after the first dose. Approximately 57% of these patients had moderate COPD [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Stage II]; 32% had severe disease (GOLD Stage III); and 11% had mild disease (GOLD Stage I). As illustrated in Table 2 there was a decrease in FEV1 soon after the first dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 96 mL and 3.5%, respectively), and the effect on FEV1 was greater following the second dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 125 mL and 4.5%, respectively). Respiratory adverse reactions occurred more frequently in the ADASUVE group (19%) than in the placebo group (11%). There were no serious adverse events. Seven of 25 (28%) patients in the ADASUVE group and 1of 27 (4%) in the placebo group did not receive a second dose of study medication because of a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 or the development of respiratory symptoms after the first dose. Rescue medication (albuterol via MDI or nebulizer) was administered to 23% of patients in the ADASUVE group: 8% of patients after the first dose and 21% of patients after the second dose, and to 15% of patients in the placebo group.
Table 2: Maximum Decrease in FEV1 from Baseline in the Healthy Volunteer, Asthma, and COPD Trials
|Maximum % FEV↓||Healthy Volunteer||Asthma||COPD|
|Placebo||ADASUVE 10 mg||Placebo||ADASUVE 10 mg||Placebo||ADASUVE 10 mg|
|n (%)||n (%)||n (%)||n (%)||n (%)||n (%)|
|After any Dose||N=26||N=26||N=26||N=26||N=27||N=25|
|≥ 10||7 (27)||7 (27)||3 (12)||22 (85)||18 (67)||20 (80)|
|≥ 15||1 (4)||5 (19)||1 (4)||16 (62)||9 (33)||14 (56)|
|≥ 20||0||1 (4)||1 (4)||11 (42)||3 (11)||10 (40)|
|After Dose 1||N=26||N=26||N=26||N=26||N=27||N=25|
|≥ 10||4 (15)||5 (19)||2 (8)||16 (62)||8 (30)||16 (64)|
|≥ 15||1 (4)||2 (8)||1 (4)||8 (31)||4 (15)||10 (40)|
|≥ 20||0||0||1 (4)||6 (23)||2 (7)||9 (36)|
|After Dose 2||N=26||N=25||N=25||N=17||N=26||N=19|
|≥ 10||5 (19)||6 (24)||3 (12)||12 (71)||15 (58)||12 (63)|
|≥ 15||0||5 (20)||1 (4)||9 (53)||6 (23)||10 (53)|
|≥ 20||0||1 (4)||1 (4)||5 (30)||1 (4)||5 (26)|
FEV1 categories are cumulative; i.e. a subject with a maximum decrease of 21% is included in all 3 categories. Patients with a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 did not receive a second dose of study drug.
Figure 7: LS Mean Change from Baseline in FEV1 in Patients with Asthma
Patients with a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 did not receive a second dose of study drug and are not included in the curves beyond hour 10.
Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS): Extrapyramidal reactions have occurred during the administration of oral loxapine. In most patients, these reactions involved parkinsonian symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, and masked facies. Akathisia (motor restlessness) has also occurred.
In the 3 short-term (24-hour), placebo-controlled trials of ADASUVE in 259 patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, extrapyramidal reactions occurred. One patient (0.4%) treated with ADASUVE developed neck dystonia and oculogyration. The incidence of akathisia was 0% and 0.4% in the placebo and ADASUVE groups, respectively.
Dystonia (Antipsychotic Class Effect): Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during treatment with ADASUVE. Dystonic symptoms include spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, difficulty swallowing or breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue.
Acute dystonia tends to be dose-related, but can occur at low doses, and occurs more frequently with first generation antipsychotic drugs such as ADASUVE. The risk is greater in males and younger age groups.
Cardiovascular Reactions: Tachycardia, hypotension, hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, lightheadedness, and syncope have been reported with oral administration of loxapine.