Worldwide, over 2900 patients have been treated with rabeprazole in Phase II-III clinical trials involving various dosages and durations of treatment.
Because clinical trials are conducted under varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Clinical Studies Experience
The data described below reflect exposure to ACIPHEX in 1064 adult patients exposed for up to 8 weeks. The studies were primarily placebo-and active-controlled trials in adult patients with Erosive or Ulcerative Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), Duodenal Ulcers, and Gastric Ulcers. The population had a mean age of 53 years (range 18-89 years) and had a ratio of approximately 60% male: 40% female. The racial distribution was 86% Caucasian, 8% African American, 2% Asian, and 5% other. Most patients received either 10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg/day of ACIPHEX.
An analysis of adverse reactions appearing in ≥ 2% of ACIPHEX patients (n=1064), and with a greater frequency than placebo (n=89) in controlled North American and European acute treatment trials, revealed the following adverse reactions: pain (3% vs. 1%), pharyngitis (3% vs. 2%), flatulence (3% vs. 1%), infection (2% vs. 1%), and constipation (2% vs. 1%).
Three long-term maintenance studies consisted of a total of 740 adult patients; at least 54% of adult patients were exposed to rabeprazole for 6 months and at least 33% were exposed for 12 months. Of the 740 adult patients, 247 (33%) and 241 (33%) patients received 10 mg and 20 mg of ACIPHEX, respectively, while 169 (23%) patients received placebo and 83 (11%) received omeprazole.
The safety profile of rabeprazole in the maintenance studies in adults was consistent with what was observed in the acute studies.
Other adverse reactions seen in controlled clinical trials, which do not meet the above criteria ( ≥ 2% of ACIPHEX-treated patients and greater than placebo) and for which there is a possibility of a causal relationship to rabeprazole, include the following: headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dry mouth, dizziness, peripheral edema, hepatic enzyme increase, hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy, myalgia, and arthralgia.
Combination Treatment with Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin: In clinical trials using combination therapy with rabeprazole plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin (RAC), no adverse reactions unique to this drug combination were observed. In the U.S. multicenter study, the most frequently reported drug related adverse reactions for patients who received RAC therapy for 7 or 10 days were diarrhea (8% and 7%) and taste perversion (6% and 10%), respectively.
No clinically significant laboratory abnormalities particular to the drug combinations were observed.
For more information on adverse reactions or laboratory changes with amoxicillin or clarithromycin, refer to their respective package prescribing information, Adverse Reactions section.
In a multicenter, open-label study of adolescent patients 12 to 16 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of symptomatic GERD or endoscopically proven GERD, the adverse event profile was similar to that of adults. The adverse reactions reported without regard to relationship to ACIPHEX that occurred in ≥ 2% of 111 patients were headache (9.9%), diarrhea (4.5%), nausea (4.5%), vomiting (3.6%), and abdominal pain (3.6%). The related reported adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 2% of patients were headache (5.4%) and nausea (1.8%). There were no adverse reactions reported in this study that were not previously observed in adults.
In a two-part, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, 127 pediatric patients 1 to 11 years of age with endoscopically proven GERD received either 5 mg or 10 mg ( < 15 kg body weight) or 10 mg or 20 mg ( > 15 kg body weight) rabeprazole. In this study, some patients were exposed to rabeprazole for 36 weeks. Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 5% of patients included abdominal pain (5%), diarrhea (5%), and headache (5%). There were no adverse reactions reported in this study that were not previously observed in trials of adolescents and adults.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of ACIPHEX. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: sudden death; coma, hyperammonemia; jaundice; rhabdomyolysis; disorientation and delirium; anaphylaxis; angioedema; bullous and other drug eruptions of the skin; severe dermatologic reactions, including toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme; interstitial pneumonia; interstitial nephritis; TSH elevations; bone fractures; hypomagnesemia and Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. In addition, agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia have been reported. Increases in prothrombin time/INR in patients treated with concomitant warfarin have been reported.