Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
A total of 2,018 patients with chronic angina were treated with ranolazine in controlled clinical trials. Of the patients treated with RANEXA, 1,026 were enrolled in three double-blind, placebocontrolled, randomized studies (CARISA, ERICA, MARISA) of up to 12 weeks' duration. In addition, upon study completion, 1,251 patients received treatment with RANEXA in open-label, long-term studies; 1,227 patients were exposed to RANEXA for more than 1 year, 613 patients for more than 2 years, 531 patients for more than 3 years, and 326 patients for more than 4 years.
At recommended doses, about 6% of patients discontinued treatment with RANEXA because of an adverse event in controlled studies in angina patients compared to about 3% on placebo. The most common adverse events that led to discontinuation more frequently on RANEXA than placebo were dizziness (1.3% versus 0.1%), nausea (1% versus 0%), asthenia, constipation, and headache (each about 0.5% versus 0%). Doses above 1000 mg twice daily are poorly tolerated.
In controlled clinical trials of angina patients, the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse reactions ( > 4% and more common on RANEXA than on placebo) were dizziness (6.2%), headache (5.5%), constipation (4.5%), and nausea (4.4%). Dizziness may be doserelated. In open-label, long-term treatment studies, a similar adverse reaction profile was observed.
The following additional adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of 0.5 to 4.0% in patients treated with RANEXA and were more frequent than the incidence observed in placebo-treated patients:
Cardiac Disorders – bradycardia, palpitations
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders – tinnitus, vertigo
Eye Disorders – blurred vision
Gastrointestinal Disorders – abdominal pain, dry mouth, vomiting, dyspepsia
General Disorders and Administrative Site Adverse Events – asthenia, peripheral edema
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders – anorexia
Nervous System Disorders – syncope (vasovagal)
Psychiatric Disorders – confusional state
Renal and Urinary Disorders – hematuria
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders – dyspnea
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders – hyperhidrosis
Vascular Disorders – hypotension, orthostatic hypotension
Other ( < 0.5%) but potentially medically important adverse reactions observed more frequently with RANEXA than placebo treatment in all controlled studies included: angioedema, renal failure, eosinophilia, chromaturia, blood urea increased, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, tremor, pulmonary fibrosis, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and pancytopenia.
A large clinical trial in acute coronary syndrome patients was unsuccessful in demonstrating a benefit for RANEXA, but there was no apparent proarrhythmic effect in these high-risk patients [see Clinical Studies].
RANEXA produces small reductions in hemoglobin A1c. RANEXA is not a treatment for diabetes.
RANEXA produces elevations of serum creatinine by 0.1 mg/dL, regardless of previous renal function. The elevation has a rapid onset, shows no signs of progression during long-term therapy, is reversible after discontinuation of RANEXA, and is not accompanied by changes in BUN. In healthy volunteers, RANEXA 1000 mg twice daily had no effect upon the glomerular filtration rate. The elevated creatinine levels are likely due to a blockage of creatinine's tubular secretion by ranolazine or one of its metabolites.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of RANEXA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:
Nervous System Disorders
Tremor, paresthesia, abnormal coordination, and other serious neurologic adverse events have been reported to occur, sometimes concurrently, in patients taking ranolazine. The onset of events was often associated with an increase in ranolazine dose or exposure. Many patients reported symptom resolution following drug discontinuation or dose decrease.
Psychiatric Disorders – hallucination
Renal and Urinary Disorders – dysuria, urinary retention
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders – angioedema, pruritus, rash