All aminoglycosides have the potential to induce auditory, vestibular, and renal toxicity and neuromuscular blockade (see DESCRIPTION: WARNINGS box). They occur more frequently in patients with present or past history of renal impairment, of treatment with other ototoxic or nephrotoxic drugs, and in patients treated for longer periods and/or with higher doses than recommended.
Neurotoxicity-Ototoxicity: Toxic effects on the eighth cranial nerve can result in hearing loss, loss of balance, or both. Amikacin primarily affects auditory function. Cochlear damage includes high frequency deafness and usually occurs before clinical hearing loss can be detected.
Neurotoxicity-Neuromuscular Blockage: Acute muscular paralysis and apnea can occur following treatment with aminoglycoside drugs.
Nephrotoxicity: Elevation of serum creatinine, albuminuria, presence of red and white cells, casts, azotemia, and oliguria have been reported. Renal function changes are usually reversible when the drug is discontinued.
Other: In addition to those described above, other adverse reactions which have been reported o nrare occasions are skin rash, drug fever, headache, paresthesia, tremor, nausea and vomiting, eosinophilia, arthralgia, anemia, and hypotension.